Ma, Q.; Steiger, S.

2024 Trends Mol Med


Crystalline material can cause a multitude of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as gouty arthritis, silicosis, kidney disease, and atherosclerosis. Crystals of various types are thought to cause similar inflammatory responses, including the release of proinflammatory mediators and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), processes that further promote necroinflammation and tissue damage. It has become apparent that the intensity of inflammation and the related mechanisms of NET formation and neutrophil death in crystal-associated diseases can vary depending on the crystal type, amount, and site of deposition. This review details new mechanistic insights into crystal biology, highlights the differential effects of various crystals on neutrophils and extracellular trap (ET) formation, and discusses treatment strategies and potential future approaches for crystal-associated disorders.

Keywords: crystals; extracellular traps; inflammation; neutrophils; tissue injury.